Brands Names: Hemangeol, Inderal , InnoPran
Price Range: $0.31 – $0.55
Dosage: 100mg / 40mg / 20mg
Propranolol belongs to the pharmacological group of indiscriminate beta-blockers. This pharmacotherapy is recognized for its ability to block beta-adrenergic receptors in cardiac and smooth muscle, which are responsive to circulating adrenaline. Propranolol can act to normalize the level of excitability of myocardial cells. This may lead to reduced heart rates and subsequently less oxygen consumed by cardiac muscle and blood vessel relaxation coupled with increased lumen diameter.
Indications to Propranolol use:
- mitral valve prolapse
- Failure of sinus rhythm
- abstinence syndrome, which occurs when you refuse to use tobacco, drugs, and alcohol
- angina pectoris
- the need for stimulation of labor with weak uterine contractions
- elimination of the negative effects caused by the onset of menopause
- aortic and portal hypertension
- heart failure
- thyrotoxicosis, in which this pharmacotherapy is used as an additional agent in the complex therapy
- cardiac ischemia
- migraine headaches
- panic and anxiety
- hypertrophic cardiomyopathy
- aortic lumen narrowing
Propranolol is primarily dispensed in tablet form with Propranolol itself being the main active ingredient. Contained within each tablet may be 10, 40, 80, or 160 mg of Propranolol.
Mechanism of action
The mechanistic action underlying Propranolol involves decreasing the number of calcium ions that enter cells by non-selectively blocking beta-adrenergic 1 and 2 receptors. A reduction in the conductivity and sensitivity of cells leads to lowering of myocardial contractile rates and the frequency of pulsations.
Instruction for use
The shelf life of effect associated with Propranolol is five years from the date noted on the package provided by the manufacturer. Since Propranolol therapy may lead to certain side effects, there are characteristics of this drug that should be considered prior to use:
- Propranolol use reduces the amount of tear fluid, which is important to consider when prescribing to patients using contact lenses
- Routine doctor visits should occur every 2-3 weeks
- For the elderly, there is a high probability of kidney damage
- Smokers reported a decrease in the effectiveness of the drug
- When cessation of drug therapy is ordered, this should occur over a course of a few weeks, reducing the dosage of Propranolol by one quarter every four days
- A patient should stop taking the drug a few days prior to undergoing surgery and anesthesia
- While pregnant and during the lactation period, Propranolol is prescribed in rare cases, only occurring when the therapeutic effect on body of the mother exceeds possible risk for abnormal fetal development
Tablets are available under the brand name Propranolol. Each tablet should be taken in entirely, without splitting. Propranolol is most effective when taken with food or immediately after a meal. After swallowing a tablet, it is necessary to drink a glass of water or juice.
Dosage recommendations for Propranolol involving the treatment of various disorders:
- When treating hypertension, 40 mg tablets should be used several times a day while checking dosages every 2-4 weeks over the course of therapy. A possible administration routine may involve the use of 80 and 160 mg tablets.
- Thyrotoxicosis is treated using a single 10 mg dose of Propranolol. The daily dose of Propranolol should not exceed 40 mg/day.
- Following a heart attack, when the condition has stabilized, the recommended single dose of Propranolol is 20 mg four times during the day.
- When treating a migraine headache, administration of Propranolol should occur 2 times per day, at 40 mg doses each time.
Propranolol dosing for children over 12 years of age is the same as recommendations for adults. For children of younger age groups, the initial dose of Propranolol is based on body weight calculated at 0.5-1 mg/kg per day. The first seven days of Propranolol use for these children should align with this initial dosing regimen. Following, daily doses of Propranolol should increase to a therapeutic value set at 2-4 mg/kg per child body weight. The daily amount of Propranolol given to children should be divided into several doses per day.
- central nervous system: feeling of weakness, drowsiness, lethargy, dizziness, confusion in thoughts, psychoses, convulsions, short-term memory loss, loss of sense of time and disruption of spatial orientation, increased sweating, and/or fever
- sensory organs: abnormal taste perception, dryness of the mucous surfaces of the mouth and eyes, pharyngitis, and/or rhinitis
- cardiovascular system: worsening of chronic heart failure, reduction of cardiac muscle contractions, chest pain, arrhythmia, lowering of blood pressure during a transition from horizontal to vertical position, and/or lowering of platelets and leukocytes in blood plasma
- digestive tract: flatulence, appearance of pain in the epigastric region, stools, nausea, vomiting, liver dysfunction, presence of icterus of skin and sclera, and/or change in the color of urine to a dark shade
- endocrine system: loss of libido and deterioration of potency in men, lowering of blood glucose levels due to thyroid dysfunction in insulin-dependent patients
- allergic reactions in the form of rashes, hives, and/or itching of the surface of the skin
- skin: transition of psoriasis to the stage of relapse and rash development
- organs of the respiratory system: appearance of chest pain and/or abnormal breathing rhythm
- pregnancy: retardation of intrauterine development of fetus and/or development of bradycardia
- individual intolerance to drug components
- presence of peripheral circulatory system disorders
- bradycardia with a decrease in the frequency of pulsations
- acute or chronic heart failure
- a weakness of the sinus node
- bronchial asthma
- impaired renal or hepatic function
- Ventricular arrhythmia
- presence of psoriasis in the form of remission
- endarteritis, thrombophlebitis, hyperthyroidism, peripheral vascular diseases, and/or hypotension
Propranolol is an effective drug belonging to the group of non-selective beta-blockers. This drug is recognized for its high effectiveness in lowering heart rate, blood pressure, and abnormal oxygen consumption. Most of the side effects associated with this drug affect those with sleep disorders as well as those with abnormal nervous system function. In addition to the main therapeutic effect, Propranolol improves blood circulation, normalizes intraocular pressure, and may be used to activate provocative contractions of the uterus during labor. Propranolol reduces the likelihood of experiencing a heart attack as well as the risk for sudden heart attacks, which leads to increased life expectancy of patients demonstrating the high risk for vascular events.